1. Poor Lighting Sources causing light pollution
Figure 1 Light pollution in a suburban Singapore housing estate at night. 2 seconds exposure on ISO 400 film, f3.3. The main source is glare from the bright security flood lamps in the foreground which belong to a primary school across the road as seen from a 15 th floor staircase landing. The sky glow in the background is apparent, probably from the construction site behind the flats and the highway; the multi storey car park is very bright even though there are no cars on the roof top.
Figure 2 2 seconds exposure on ISO 400 film, f3.3. The source of glare, from the primary school across the road, noticeably absent in this image, taken when the lights were not turned on one night. The glare had been causing discomfort to residents for some time.
Figures 3 and 4 Lighting fixtures at a shopping centre.These globe-like lighting fixtures diffuse light in all directions, including upwards. In the picture on the right of the shopping centre at night, there are about at least 10 lamp posts in 250 square metres. The tall light fixtures with bulbous external glass surfaces cause a certain amount of light to spill upwards through reflection.
Figures 5 and 6 Spotlights and lighting fixtures at a hard court. The spotlights (circled white) at the street soccer court are lighting fixtures that are less effective that cause upward light spill are circled yellow. The spotlights shine into some apartments on the lower levels at night that are to the right of the image .
Figure 7 Typical lighting fixtures in a housing district. These lighting fixtures cause light to spill upwards and not illuminate the ground effectively by scattering the light produced in all directions.
2. Good Lighting fixtures housing districts
Figure 9 and 10 Examples of good lighting fixtures in housing estates. Such lighting fixtures are found near the lower levels of government-owned Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats. These light fixtures direct all light downwards and prevent any upward spillage and glare into residents’ line of sight.
Figure 11 and 12 Lighting fixtures at a badminton court/ sepak takraw court in a housing estate. The lighting fixtures in the first image on the left are shielded and the light does not spill upward. The spotlights in the second picture on the right are similarly directed downwards.